Treatment is aimed at enhancing gas exchange, reducing fluid overload, and strengthening and slowing the heart beat.
This accumulation can occur in the cells (cellular edema), in the intercellular spaces within tissues (interstitial edema), or in potential spaces within the body.
Some other causes are poor lymphatic drainage, increased capillary permeability (as in inflammation), and congestive heart failure.
See also anasarca, ascites, hydrothorax, hydropericardium and anatomically located edemas, e.g.
Cellular edema may occur in ischemia or hypoxia of the brain.
Because the brain is enclosed in the solid vault of the skull, edema compresses the blood vessels, decreasing the blood flow and causing ischemia and hypoxia, which in turn result in further edema.