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This view is challenged by recent investigations which find that the function of mitochondrial OXPHOS in most cancers is intact.
Aerobic glycolysis in many cancers is the combined result of various factors such as oncogenes, tumor suppressors, a hypoxic microenvironment, mt DNA mutations, genetic background and others.
However, there is another old definition involving hydrogen which may be encountered in organic chemistry texts.
This definition is the opposite of the oxygen definition, so it may cause confusion. According to this definition, oxidation is the loss of hydrogen, while reduction is the gain of hydrogen.
Many metals oxidize, so it's useful to recognize the form of the equation: Once the electron was discovered and chemical reactions could be explained, scientists realized oxidation and reduction occur together, with one species losing electrons (oxidized) and another gaining electrons (reduced).
A type of chemical reaction in which oxidation and reduction occurs is called a redox reaction, which stands for reduction-oxidation.
Rust is oxygen reacting with iron, and both burning and breathing involve oxygen reacting with carbon to free up energy stored in chemical bonds.
Warburg originally proposed that the aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells was due to a permanent impairment of mitochondrial OXPHOS.
However, this view is challenged by recent investigations which found that defects of mitochondrial OXPHOS are not common in spontaneous tumors (2) and that the function of mitochondrial OXPHOS in most cancers is intact (1,3–7).
Understanding the features and complexity of the cancer energy metabolism will help to develop new approaches in early diagnosis and effectively target therapy of cancer.
Introduction Relationships between glycolysis and OXPHOS are cooperative and competitive Cancer cells have a diversity of energy production pathways Alterations of oncogenes and tumor suppressors drive cancer cells to aerobic glycolysis Conclusion Energy consumption from metabolic activities in normal cells relies primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which is efficient and generates more adenosine triphosphate (ATP) than glycolysis.